The fabrication process starts with selection and handling of the metal. The fundamental process of working with stainless steel in applications with sanitary requirements includes careful handling to prevent contamination from the manufacturing environment and the use of protective surfaces throughout all processes.
C.D. Horvath, in Materials, Design and Manufacturing for Lightweight Vehicles, 2010 2.2.4 Cold rolled martensitic and heat treated boron steels. Martensitic steels, which consist of a matrix rich in martensite with smaller amounts of bainite and/or ferrite, are produced by quenching at very high rates from the austenite–ferrite region.
Portraits in Steel gives a good, broad overview of the history of Jones & Laughlin, liberally illustrated throughout. The book makes a good introduction to the iron and steel business without providing so much detail that it becomes dry reading.
Discussion on Common Materials of Cookware. Looking at the table above, if you multiply specific heat with density, you'll find that the heat capacity per unit volume of steel, cast iron, and copper are about 1.5 times that of aluminum.
Stainless steels are iron-base alloys containing at least 11 wt.% Chromium. They typcially contain less than 30 wt.% Cr and more than 50wt.% Fe. Stainless steels obtain their stainless characteristics because of the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film.
Iron and steel are key products for the global economy. Since 2000, global steel production has grown by 75%, reaching 1.49 billion tons of steel in 2011. 1 The sector is the largest industrial emitter of CO 2 (with direct emissions of 2.16 Gt in 2006) and second largest industrial user of energy (consuming 24 EJ in 2006).