Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula Cu Al 6 (PO 4) 4 8 ·4H 2 O.It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue.
Highlights Almost 20% of CO 2 emissions by cement plant could be mitigated by shifting to dry process with calciner instead of wet process. Due to economic, technical and legal barriers, widespread cost-effective deployment of CCS is not foreseen before 2020. Utilizing industrial by-products resulted in the greatest contribution in emissions mitigation.
The Romance of Steel A History of the Steel Industry by Herbert Newton Casson THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS. On that bleak November day when Andrew Carnegie was born in a Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain.