Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.It is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases, and other products.
The physical properties of Transition Metals like density, melting points, boiling points, strength are described and discussed along with a description of the important transition metal chemical properties of e.g. titanium, vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc.
Chalcopyrite ores are usually processed by means of hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical processes, but due to environmental aspects and the possibility of increased exploitation of mixed and lower grade ores and relatively small isolated deposits, there has been a worldwide upsurge of interest in the hydrometallurgical processes of this ore as compared to pyrometallurgy.
Evolution of Blast Furnace Iron Making. The origin of the first smelting of iron is concealed in the unrecorded history of human civilization. The first evidence of iron implements being used in ancient times actually comes from Egypt where an iron tool was found in a joint between two stones in a pyramid.