underground lode (hard rock) mining Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those minerals containing metals such as gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating gems such as diamonds.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds or rubies.
Mining gold from the hard rock deep in the earth proved tricky. Experienced miners from Cornwall, England, immigrated by the hundreds. Well-versed in hard-rock tin and copper mining, the Cornish miners brought such advancements as the "Cornish pump" that helped empty underground tunnels of water that flooded into mine passages from ...
Understanding Hard Rock Mining: Terms and Methods—Part I. June 2004 by Chris Ralph. While most small-scale prospectors and miners focus their energies on placer deposits, most large mining companies put their efforts primarily into hard rock mining.
Gold deposits live in igneous or metamorphic rock, which is relatively hard, as do diamonds, copper, silver, nickel and zinc [source: Great Mining]. Even within the hard-rock category, design and extraction methods vary, but almost all revolve around a few basic techniques:
Since the costs can be high in the exploration and removal of gold from the hard rock mines, large companies are created in order to raise the money necessary for the development of the mines, rather than the solitary individual or small group associated with placer mining.
Hard rock mining, placer mining, by-product mining and gold ore processing are some methods of gold mining. Each method has its unique process of accessing, extracting and processing gold. Hard rock mining is a method that involves the creation of underground tunnels or open pit mines to access gold ...