Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production.
Method used depends greatly on the mineral's location Mining allows for the extraction of minerals from the Earth. There are many materials that can be mined. The location of the mineral and its proximity to the surface typically determines the type of mining that is used.
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Water. Large quantities of water are used in mining operations for cooling machinery, dust suppression, cleaning, fire-fighting and drinking. Water supplies are normally carried in steel pipes from surface to points close to the work places, with flexible hoses used for the final connections.
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A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
LONGWALL MINING Overview. In the method of secondary extraction known as longwall mining a relatively long mining face (typically in the range 100 to 300m but may be longer) is created by driving a roadway at right angles between two roadways that form the sides of the longwall block, with one rib of this new roadway forming the longwall face.