A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
The mining industry has a reputation for being a risky business, with health risks that are varied and often quite serious, and it is important for miners to protect themselves accordingly. Nevertheless, mining doesn't have to be unsafe. With the introduction of strict safety legislation and ...
The National Institute of Rock Mechanics (NIRM), is an autonomous Research Institute under Ministry of Mines, Government of India. Set up in 1988 under Societies Act, 1860, NIRM has its Head Office (HO) at Bengaluru and Registered Office (RO) at Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds or rubies.