A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
Highlights Almost 20% of CO 2 emissions by cement plant could be mitigated by shifting to dry process with calciner instead of wet process. Due to economic, technical and legal barriers, widespread cost-effective deployment of CCS is not foreseen before 2020. Utilizing industrial by-products resulted in the greatest contribution in emissions mitigation.
Isn't normal, good quality concrete waterproof? In order to provide sufficient workability for proper placing & compaction and to facilitate proper mixing and transportation to site, most plant-batched concrete will contain water in excess of that required to simply hydrate the cement.