Australia's iron ore reserves and resources are in both hematite and magnetite ores. Because of the high average grades (% Fe) of hematite ores when compared to the average grades for magnetite ores, it is necessary to report national resources in terms of contained iron.
Mineral processing: Mineral processing, art of treating crude ores and mineral products in order to separate the valuable minerals from the waste rock, or gangue. It is the first process that most ores undergo after mining in order to provide a more concentrated material for the procedures of extractive metallurgy.
Iron and steel are key products for the global economy. Since 2000, global steel production has grown by 75%, reaching 1.49 billion tons of steel in 2011. 1 The sector is the largest industrial emitter of CO 2 (with direct emissions of 2.16 Gt in 2006) and second largest industrial user of energy (consuming 24 EJ in 2006).
Nickel processing: Nickel processing, preparation of the metal for use in various products. Although it is best known for its use in coinage, nickel (Ni) has become much more important for its many industrial applications, which owe their importance to a unique combination of properties.