established the artificial heart program in 1964, leading to the first total artificial heart for human use implanted in 1969. The emphasis shifted to left ventricular assist systems and blood compatible materials in 1970. During that same year, a LVAD was used successfu
The study of the origin of life, called "abiogenesis" by many researchers in the field, is highly relevant to xenology and xenologists. By determining the conditions that existed on the primitive Earth, and by duplicating them in the laboratory, scientists can attempt to recreate events that must have occurred on this planet billions of years ago.
Artificial blood vessels are tubes made from synthetic (chemically produced) materials to restore blood circulation. During World War I (1914-1918) French-American surgeon Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) perfected a procedure for sewing the ends of blood vessels together.
If you're rotating through an ophthalmology department, you're going to be dragged into surgery at some point. Cataract surgery is our signature operation, so it's worthwhile to familiarize yourself with basic lens anatomy and surgical goals.
Willem J. Kolff successfully treats a dying patient in his native Holland with an "artificial kidney," the first kidney dialysis machine. Kolff's creation is made of wooden drums, cellophane tubing, and laundry tubs and is able to draw the woman's blood, clean it of impurities, and pump it back into her body.
The first artificial heart valve was the caged-ball, which utilizes a metal cage to house a silicone elastomer ball.When blood pressure in the chamber of the heart exceeds that of the pressure on the outside of the chamber the ball is pushed against the cage and allows blood to flow.