Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
PT Pamapersada Nusantara (PAMA) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of PT United Tractors Tbk, a major distributor of Komatsu heavy equipment in Indonesia. PT Astra International Tbk, the major shareholder of PT United Tractors Tbk, is one of the largest and most respected companies in Indonesia.
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