[ These are my notes from this book about how we went from an organic sustainable economy to a temporary fossil-fueled one. It's one of the few books I've found that explains what life was like before fossil fuels in a biophysical way that focuses on energy and population.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure.
Stainless steel is an iron-containing alloy—a substance made up of two or more chemical elements—used in a wide range of applications. It has excellent resistance to stain or rust due to its chromium content, usually from 12 to 20 percent of the alloy. There are more than 57 stainless steels ...
New Concept Projects formed a Joint Venture Agreement with Osborn and now supply the new Osborn Grinding Mill Range. Our capability includes the supply of new mills, based on existing proven Osborn designs, engineered with assistance of modern design techniques and 3D simulation packages.
A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.