On January 1st 1948, the former 'Big Four' railway companies: London North Eastern Railway (LNER); London Midland & Scottish Railway (LMSR); Great Western Railway (GWR) and Southern Railway (SR) were amalgamated to form the new British Railways.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.
Rails that Climb: The Story of the Moffat Road. [Edward T. Bollinger, Wilfred Stedman] on . *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Classic history of David Moffat and his railroad, the opening of the Moffat Tunnel, and its transformation into a modern mainline.