A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
At the time, northeastern Pennsylvania was not an easy place to transport goods. Opening up the isolated and mountainous region required the efforts of a generation of capitalists and politicians, who used their resources and influence to create a transportation network that made the coal revolution possible.
Coal: Coal, one of the most important primary fossil fuels, a solid carbon-rich material, usually brown or black, that most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits, which may later be subjected to high temperatures and pressures during mountain building, resulting in the development of anthracite and even graphite.
Russell Elliott, provides quality land surveys, property boundary surveys, subdivision surveys, mortgage surveys, topographic maps and construction surveys. We also survey sections in the public land survey system, PLSS and ALTA, American Land and Title Association, SIR, Survey Inspection Reports and As-built surveys.
Back — The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity. Backfill — Mine waste or rock used to support the roof after coal removal. Barren — Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable.
Transport. MES designed and purpose built road transport crates can be used to transport the HDCNG ® ready for use to mining operations. This could be either where the feedstock gas is not available from within the lease area or where the gas processing site and the refuelling facility on the mine lease are some distance apart.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure.